JPED研究院| 期望的力量

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JPED研究院| 期望的力量

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欢迎来到达罗捷派研究院~
教育就是对自然法则智慧的展现,这种展现不仅仅指各种事物及其蕴含的力量,而且包括人类和他们的各个方面,以及热切希望和这些自然法则和谐相处的情感与意志的塑造。--托马斯·亨利·赫胥黎(英国博学家)

教师作为工作在一线的教育者,对于教学、教研、德育等工作拥有绝对的话语权,JPED 研究院将为大家定期推出外教+中教对于教学相关工作的感悟。

今天,我们将为大家推出达罗捷派研究院的第一期推文-来自达罗捷派教务主任Mr.Adams《期望的力量》,带你深入达罗捷派教学最前线,全面了解达罗捷派的创新教育理念。


  期望的力量  《The Power of Expectations

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Zain Adams达罗捷派学院教务主任

南非教育学博士(在读),休瓦特教育学院(南非)高级教育专业学士学位,15年教育经验,教学足迹遍布整个亚洲。3项教育专业文凭。擅长引导学生找到适应自己的学习方式,并据此制定更高级学习计划。


期望教育的定义和影响是什么呢?

根据定义,期望是对未来和预期成果的强烈信念。教师通常认为“期望是用来指导和告知学生行为的标准。

作为老师,我们对学生是有明确期望的,学生也知道在我们的课堂上应该期待学习到什么内容。我们坚持不懈的向学生传达我们的期望,但是老师的期望是如何影响学生的呢?


By definition, expectations are a set of strong beliefs surrounding future outcomes and anticipated results. Teachers typically think of “expectations” as the standards used to direct and inform the behavior of students (Ritchart, 2015).

As teachers, we have clear expectations of our students and students know what to expect in our classes. We communicate our expectations to students and we uphold it relentlessly. But how do teacher expectations influence the performance of our students?

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未来发展潜力测试的研究成果

1964年,哈佛大学心理学家罗伯特·罗森塔尔在旧金山的奥克小学进行了一项开创性的实验。他对学生进行了一项标准智商测试,但这项实验被伪装成了一个名字叫做未来发展潜力测试的特殊测试。然后,他在每个班随机抽取学生,并告诉负责老师这些被抽取的学生注定会在学业上有所成就。

第二年,被抽取的学生表现就如他(心理学家罗伯特·罗森塔尔)所预测的那样,一年级学生的智商平均提高了27分。罗森塔尔由此得出结论:老师对学生的信任促使学生取得更大的成就。他补充说,如果我们期待人们做出某些行为,我们就要以不同的方式对待他们。

在进一步的研究中,罗森塔尔发现,期望会影响教师和学生之间的即时互动。“老师们会给学生更多的时间来回答问题,给学生更具体的反馈以及更多的认可。”罗森塔尔称他的发现为皮格马利翁效应


In 1964, a Harvard psychologist named Robert Rosenthal performed a ground-breaking experiment at Spruce Elementary school in San Francisco. He conducted a standard IQ test on students but pretended to do a special test called the “Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition”. He then placed random students in each class and told the teachers these students were destined to flourish academically.

Over the next year, these students excelled just as he predicted and the first graders especially increased their IQ scores by 27 points on average. Rosenthal thus concluded that it was the teachers’ belief in their students that prompted the students to achieve. He added that “if we expect certain behaviors from people, we treat them differently” (Ellison, 2015).

In his further research, Rosenthal found that expectations affect teachers’ moment-to-moment interactions with their students. “They give students that they expect to succeed more time to answer questions, more specific feedback, and more approval” (Spiegel, 2012). Rosenthal called his discovery the Pygmalion Effect.

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图注:Mr.Adams与学生们的导师组午餐


教师应从皮格马利翁效应中学习到什么?

那么教师从这种效应中可以学习到什么?也许我们应该重新思考和评估我们的教学方法。这可能并不简单,如果我们希望学生们相信他们自己可以有机会取得成功,那我们就要勇于反思我们的信念和教学方法,并及时采取行动,成为更有影响力的老师。

低期望同样具有很强的影响力。我们发现被别人贴了特殊学生、贫困学生或者少数族裔标签的学生,会因为低期望而表现不佳。

作为不断进步的教育者,我们需要向所有学生传达高期望,包括那些“有问题”的学生。根据罗伯特(研究者)的说法,我们需要观察我们的学生了解他们的学习动机。我们必须更加全面的去了解我们的学生,不断的反思并且付诸行动。

老师应该也要重视一些非语言的交流(肢体语言),比如耸肩、挑眉,会对学生产生的负面影响。教育工作者需要提高情商,一举一动都很容易反映出老师对学生的期望值。


So how can teachers learn from this phenomenon? Perhaps we should rethink and assess our beliefs. Perhaps we should re-imagine our approaches. This will not be easy. If we hope is to give our students the best possible chance to achieve success, then we should be brave enough to reflect on our beliefs and approaches. We should then take the necessary action to become more effective teachers.

Low expectations are just as influential. In classrooms where we track students from an early age, we find that students under-perform. Even in society where we label special needs students, poor students and minorities, we find that students under-perform due to our low expectations.

As progressive educators, we need to communicate high expectations to all our students, including the “problem” ones. According to the researcher, Robert Pianta, we need to observe our students and learn what motivates them. We must get to know our students and we must reflect on our practice (Spiegel, 2012).

Even our non-verbal communication should be examined. A shrug of the shoulders, a raised eyebrow, can project negativity towards our students. Educators need to improve their emotional intelligence. A teacher’s demeanor can easily reflect the level of expectations.

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图注:“皮格马利翁效应”的影响(自我价值实现的路径)

教师需要追求更高的个人标准,也要对学生有更高的期望,这是一个双赢的局面,会给老师和学生双方带来正面的引导和反馈。

Teachers need to aspire to high personal standards and to also set high expectations for all their students. This will indeed result in better outcomes for students as well as teachers.


References(参考文献):

1.Ellison, K. (2015). Being honest about the Pygmalion Effect. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/2015/dec/14-great-expectations

2.Spiegel, A. (2012). Teacher’s expectations can influence how students perform. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/09/18/161159263/teachers-expectations-can-influence-how-students-perform

3.Ritchhart, R. (2015). Creating cultures of thinking: The 8 forces we must  master to truly transform our schools. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.